As we have reiterated many times at The Optimist Daily, the brain is an extremely complex organ shrouded in mystery. Incredible and interesting breakthroughs are always being made on this front, including how our brains interpret smell, how they communicate with our organs, and the regions involved in singing.
Now, a recent paper further adds to our knowledge of the neurological system and could help us more effectively treat substance abuse disorders.
What part of the brain is associated with substance abuse?
Scientists, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham, have managed to decipher the makeup of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This region in the midbrain is important for dopamine transmission and involved in reward-directed behavior. Dysregulation of these reward circuits can lead to disorders such as substance abuse, OCD, and ADHD.
Mapping out the brain
Through RNA sequencing, 16 distinct cell populations were found including dopaminergic neurons, glutamatergic neurons, astrocytes, and glial cells. Previous work deciphering this molecular architecture has been biased, as only identified cells linked to dopaminergic nerve populations. With this new approach, this study created a more accurate and complete map of the region.
Mapping out these distinct cell types in the VTA allowed the group to piece together how they may be linked to the rest of the brain and how they interact with each other. From this, a searchable and interactive database was made that accurately atlases which cells and receptors are placed in which region.
Why is this research important?
In the last year, more than 100,000 people died in the U.S. because of drug overdoses. Understanding more about what exactly goes on in the brain of a person with addiction is key to finding a treatment and saving lives.
This new concise resource will allow future scientists to look up genes associated with certain diseases and figure out the exact molecular and genetic reasons behind these conditions.
Source study: Cell Reports – An atlas of transcriptionally defined cell populations in the rat ventral tegmental area